HackTheBox-BountyHunter

Hello everyone , I hope you are doing well , in this post I will be sharing my walkthrough for HTB Bounty hunter machine , which is an easy linux box ,there were only 2 ports on this machine , ssh and http. On the webserver there was a bug reporting page which is taking some input and sending data in the form of url encoded base64 data , on decoding that we saw that it’s xml data being sent , so here we used XXE to read files and one of the files gave us credentials to ssh , after logging in we saw that the user can run a python script as root which checks if a file provided is a valid ticket or not , going through the source code , it was using eval function which was vulnerable to code injection through which can run system commands and get root.

NMAP

PORT   STATE SERVICE REASON         VERSION
22/tcp open ssh syn-ack ttl 63 OpenSSH 8.2p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.2 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
80/tcp open http syn-ack ttl 63 Apache httpd 2.4.41 ((Ubuntu))
|_http-favicon: Unknown favicon MD5: 556F31ACD686989B1AFCF382C05846AA
| http-methods:
|_ Supported Methods: GET HEAD POST OPTIONS
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.41 (Ubuntu)
|_http-title: Bounty Hunters
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

PORT 80 (HTTP)

We can see this is just an html being used on the webserver , going to portal it says that it’s under development

Which takes us to Bounty reporting system

But when we submit details to the reporting system it just doesn’t get saved

So here let’s try to run gobuster and fuzz for files and directories

We can’t visit /assets as it's forbidden for us

Checking the /resources folder we do see some files

From README.txt it seems that reporting system isn't connected to database also it says about disabling the test account maybe we can login somewhere but for now I don't think there's a login page.

Moving on and checking the the bountylog.js we can see a url which points to tracker_diRbPr00f314.php

So let’s use burp suite and try intercepting that reporting system to see if it's actually sending data somewhere

This is making a POST request to that page and sending the data as base64 encoded

So this means here we need to do what is called XXE(XML Xternal Entity), what XXE basically allows us to read local files like /etc/passwd and sensitive files like php file's source code that the browser doesn't reveal we can steal some information that can be either passwords or some sensitive data . An application that parses XML input . we can add a variable which is called Entity that we define inside a DTD which is Document Type Definiation which looks like this

<!DOCTYPE arz  [Entity] >

The DOCTYPE declaration is where we declare elements, attributes, entities, and notations.

So in DTD we define an entity

<!ENTITY arz SYSTEM "file:///etc/passwd">

This is an external Entity as we are accessing something which isn’t declared in the current xml and they are defined with SYSTEM keyword

If we combine this together it will look like this

<!DOCTYPE test [<!ENTITY arz SYSTEM "file:///etc/passwd"> ]>

Now in this scenario our xml input looks like this

<?xml  version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<bugreport>
<title>SQLI</title>
<cwe>IDK</cwe>
<cvss>4.4</cvss>
<reward>99</reward>
</bugreport>

Including our XXE payload

<?xml  version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE test [<!ENTITY arz SYSTEM "file:///etc/passwd"> ]>
<bugreport>
<title>&arz;</title>
<cwe>IDK</cwe>
<cvss>4.4</cvss>
<reward>99</reward>
</bugreport>

Notice that <title>&arz;</title> this is the variable or the entity that we defined and we are calling that in title , so let's base64 encoded it and convert it to url encoding so it can be parsed

And we have performed XXE and are successful in reading the /etc/password file means that we can access that db.php as well by using a php filter php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=index.php that converts the php page to base64 text form as php won't be able to parse base64 encoded text so it will output that page in base64 that we can decode it and see the whole source code

<?xml  version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE replace [<!ENTITY example SYSTEM "php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=db.php"> ]>
<bugreport>
<title>&example;</title>
<cwe>IDK</cwe>
<cvss>4.4</cvss>
<reward>99</reward>
</bugreport>

From /etc/passwd the only user that has a command shell bash is only development user so we can try this password through ssh

On doing sudo -l we can see that we are allowed to run a python script as root

So to break down that python script it’s going to first ask for the path of the markdown file .md file

And it’s going to run load_file function

This function will check if the file is ending with markdown extension or not if ti is it’s going to open that file and read it , then it’s going to return the contents of the file to evaluate function

The first part of this code will check if that markdown file starts with # Skytrain Inc if not it's going to return false and the program will end else it will continue

The second part would check if the second line contains ## Ticket to if not it's going to return false and will end the program else that will continue

The third will check if the next line of markdown starts with __Ticket Code:__ or not and will do the same as previously

The fourth part of this function is important as it will only evaluate the file if those asterisks contain a number that on dividing with 7 it's remainder must be 4 also the number we have in those asterisks must be greater than 100

Here this is going to split the txt on + that will make a list and it's going to take the first argument of that list

Now this part is where we can do code injection

So first let’s make our markdown file

# Skytrain Inc
## Ticket to
__Ticket Code:__
**102**+__import__('os').system('whoami')

We have 102 which on dividing with 7 will give us the remainder 4 and after that we added + and then importing os module to run the shell command whoami

So that eval function will have the value 102+__import__('os').system('whoami') and during runtime it's going to import os module in python script and execute the command

So we can just replace whoami with bash reverse shell

References

https://research.cs.wisc.edu/mist/SoftwareSecurityCourse/Chapters/3_8_3-Code-Injections.pdf

Pentester | CTF Player